CPR and First Aid

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How many chest compressions should you give in 1 cycle of CPR?
What should you do before delivering rescue breath?
When the victim's chest does not rise during 1st rescue breath, you should
What is hands-only CPR?

Introduction to CPR

CPR is an emergency procedure performed to save the life of someone in cardiac arrest. It involves a sequence of activities replicating the heart's pumping and breathing of the lungs to carry oxygen throughout the body.


  • Cardiac arrest is when the heart stops beating and can not pump blood to the brain and other vital organs. When this happens, CPR is performed to restart the heart.
  • Anyone can perform CPR, but it is recommended that only trained medical professionals perform CPR on someone who is in cardiac arrest.
  • Although CPR is unlikely to restart a stopped heart, it will maintain blood flow to the victim's brain until advanced lifesaving techniques are available.

CPR consists of two main components:

  • Chest compressions
  • Rescue breaths.

1 cycle of CPR consists of 30 chest compressions followed by 2 rescue breaths


Chest Compressions

This procedure replicates the heart's pumping action by administering high-quality chest compressions. With this technique, the blood moves to the body's vital parts.

How to perform chest compressions?

  • Place the victim on their back on a firm, flat surface.
  • Place the heel of your hand on the breastbone at the center of the person's chest.
  • Place your other hand on top of the first hand and interlace your fingers.
  • Use your body weight to help you administer the compressions.
  • Use quick, forceful pumps to compress the chest at a rate of 100-120 compressions per minute.


The rescuer will manually breathe air into the victim's lungs, which will simulate the act of inhalation. The air will help oxygenate the blood flowing through the lungs. The air consists mostly of carbon dioxide. But, it also contains all the oxygen that the rescuer's body did not use, constituting almost 17% of the exhaled air. This is enough to sustain the victim's life until the emergency response team arrives.

  • Before giving rescue breath, open the victim's airway using a head tilt, chin lift or jaw thrust maneuver if there is a suspected spine and neck injury.
  • Pinch the person's nose shut and place your mouth over their mouth.
  • Blow into the person's mouth for about one second to make their chest rise.
  • Allow the person to exhale and repeat the steps.
  • Avoid excessive ventilation, and chest rise should appear natural.
  • If the chest doesn't rise during the 1st rescue breath, open the airway again using head tilt and chin lift, then give the 2nd rescue breath.


Hands-only CPR

Hands-only CPR is a method of performing CPR that doesn't require rescue breaths.


  1. If the person is not breathing or not breathing normally, call 911 and then begin chest compressions.
  2. Place the heel of your hand on the breastbone at the center of the person's chest. Place your other hand on top of your first hand and interlace your fingers.
  3. Use your body weight to help you perform the compressions. You should compress the chest at least 2 inches but no more than 2.4 inches.
  4. Perform 30 compressions at a rate of at least 100-120 compressions per minute.
  5. If the person starts breathing independently, stop performing chest compressions and monitor their breathing. If the person does not start breathing independently, continue chest compressions until emergency medical help arrives.


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